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鎮雄人,你知道嗎?中國“一人戶”家庭超1.25億

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2022-1-15 17:11:16 來自手機 | 顯示全部
中新財經1月14日電 一人住、一人食、一人游,當下,獨居群體不斷增多。

記者查詢2021年中國統計年鑒發現,2020年,全國共有家庭戶49416萬戶,其中“一人戶”家庭超過1.25億,占比超過25%。

一人戶家庭規模為何如此龐大?會給經濟社會帶來哪些挑戰和機遇?又該如何應對?國務院發展研究中心社會發展研究部研究室主任、研究員馮文猛接受中新網“中國新觀察”欄目專訪,對上述問題進行解讀。

訪談實錄摘編如下:

中新網記者:根據2021年中國統計年鑒,全國共有家庭戶49416萬戶,其中“一人戶”有125490007,超過1.25億,占比超過25%,這個數據意味著什么?

馮文猛:中國有1.25億單人戶家庭,這個規模非常龐大,占比超過25%,在國際上橫向比較也不算低。

從結構看,我國當前的一人戶家庭戶主要由兩部分人構成,一部分是老年單人家庭,即老年人中處于獨居狀態的家庭,另一部分就是年輕人單人家庭。

第七次全國人口普查數據顯示,我國老年人口有2.64億人。2015年的相關調查已經顯示,當時空巢老年人(老年夫婦戶)和獨居老人在老年人口的比例已經超過50%。近些年,老年人處在獨居狀態的情況進一步增長,同時年輕人中個人戶現象也在進一步增加。

伴隨著平均壽命的延長、代際價值觀的差異化以及獨身主義的興起等變化的發生,我國單人戶家庭規模和占比不斷擴大,這是社會發展的一個必然趨勢,不能簡單來用好或壞來定性。但對于它的比例以及上升的速度,整個社會要給予高度重視。

中新網記者:“一人戶”數量如此之多,社會中的獨居者似乎日漸增長,背后的原因有哪些?

馮文猛:單人戶現在整體占到了全部家庭戶的1/4,背后有很多經濟和社會原因,從具體內容看,老年人和年輕人中單人戶增加的原因是不同的。

在老年單人戶方面,隨著老齡化持續發展和醫療技術的進步,高齡老人的數量和占比也在進一步增長。整體看,女性平均預期壽命高于男性,老年夫婦戶中一人先去世,就會留下一位老人,成為獨居戶。同時,由于家庭觀念變化以及代際價值觀的差異化,子女和老年人共同居住的比例越來越低。這些因素,都導致了老年人中獨居家庭的數量以及比例進一步增長。

在年輕單人戶方面,年輕人在就業初期很多人是選擇了單獨居住。這一方面源于大部分年輕人屬于跨地區流動就業,客觀上無法和父母一同居??;另一方面,即使和父母在同一個城市,由于生活觀念、生活習慣和行為方式的不同,加上對獨立自由空間的渴望,在條件允許的情況下,離開父母單獨居住比例也在進一步增長。

在過去40多年中,中國經歷了快速的社會變遷,住房條件改善,悅己主義盛行,晚婚甚至不婚的人數有所增加。不同代際人的價值觀念和認知差異很大,跨代際居住帶來的矛盾也會比較多,在這種大背景下,青年群體中獨居人群和比例在進一步增長。

中新網記者:家庭戶平均人口跌破3,“一人戶”規模增加,會給中國社會帶來什么挑戰?

馮文猛:單人戶家庭不斷增長帶來的問題和挑戰逐漸凸顯,主要體現在:

一是家庭養老供給不足的問題。獨居老人的增多,需要居家社區養老加快發展。同時,獨居老人有自己的特定需求,比如需要建立更加完善的疾病監測體系,確保出現意外狀況時能夠得到及時救治,增加居住環境的安全安心感。因此,在養老服務建設中,需要構建更加完善的社會化居家養老服務體系,發展更加便捷、更加可負擔、貼近老人周邊身邊的養老服務??傮w看,當前這方面的需求很大,但缺口也很大。

二是能否得到心理慰藉的問題。獨居狀態的人是需要給予精神關愛的,獨居久了如果沒有好的情緒排解渠道,容易產生一些心理問題,嚴重時還可能引發一些社會問題。這些年一些國家出現的自閉癥人群數量增加,和獨居比例增加有著一定關系。雖然我國目前產生這一問題的比例還不太高,但是也不能忽視帶來的潛在影響。

三是年輕人家庭責任感淡薄的問題。一般情況下,獨居年輕人和家庭的連接更弱,久而久之他們承擔家庭責任的意愿也會變得更加淡薄。

四是影響生育和人口發展的問題。如果放任獨居年輕群體增加,對婚姻、家庭以及保持適宜的生育水平都會帶來一些不利影響。這方面也需要我們給予關注。

中新網記者:“一人戶”增多,會給經濟社會帶來哪些新機遇?

馮文猛:隨著單人家庭數量的增多,近些年單身經濟呈現了迅速發展的勢頭,一些新的需求迸發出來,也在催生一些新產品、新服務、新產業和新商業模式。

比如,一人份商品日益暢銷,適小化成為大趨勢。吃穿住行等方面會有更多滿足一人份需求的產品,100克裝大米、50毫升威士忌、一人火鍋、迷你家電、迷你KTV……一人份商品會有更大的市場機遇。

未來,會有更多的商業模式專門服務于獨居人群。比如,給獨居老年人提供疾病監測、提供安全保障的服務。解決獨居年輕人不愿意做家務、不會做飯的服務??傮w上,原來由家庭提供的很多服務都需要轉化成由社會提供,點餐、家政等需求會進一步增加,花錢買方便與花錢買時間的“懶人經濟”有可能更加流行。

另外,獨居人群需要情感寄托,能夠提供心靈寄托的寵物等行業也會迎來大的發展,這是一種家庭情感的替代。還有智能管家、陪伴機器人等也將成為前景看好的領域。

總之,單身經濟下,個性化、專屬化、品質化的消費場景會更受歡迎。健身、旅游等各種面向個體的興趣俱樂部也在不斷增加,這些都為獨居年輕人提供了在家庭外部進行充分交流和情感宣泄的平臺。

中新網記者:在生育率降低、家庭少子化、人口老齡化的背景下,家庭規模持續縮小,公共政策該如何去應對?

馮文猛:從歷史變遷看,中國的家庭戶規模在不斷在縮小,且這種變化的趨勢近些年更加明顯。數據顯示,1953年第一次全國人口普查時每個家庭戶規模平均是4.33人,1964年上升到4.43人,1982年開始下降,平均家庭戶規模為4.41人,2000年下降到3.44人,2010年下降到3.10人,2020年則進一步下降至每戶2.62人,跌破三口之家。

過去幾十年中中國家庭規模的變化,一方面是受到計劃生育政策的影響,另一方面也是經濟社會大環境變化導致的結果。女性勞動參與率提高,居民接受教育年限增長,社會整體對“養兒防老”的依賴在減少,城鎮化在推進,生育養育教育成本在提高,這些都帶來生育量的減少。

但是,保持適當的家庭規模和適宜的生育水平,是一個國家長期可持續發展的基礎。針對上面出現的趨勢,有必要采取措施去阻止家庭規模持續縮小,應對不斷攀升的單人家庭的趨勢。

該怎么做?一方面要扭轉不愿結婚和生育的價值取向,在全國倡導婚姻、家庭、生育的重要性,強調人口生育的意義,讓更多的人意識到生育的價值和對家庭和社會的責任,消減部分人群對婚姻、家庭、生育的負面印象。

獨身主義興起的時間并不長,很多人還沒有意識到獨居在長時間內對自我身心和社會發展帶來的一些問題,因此,要營造有利于婚育的社會環境和文化氛圍,引導他們對婚姻、家庭、生育形成更加積極的看法,而不是結婚與生育均無所謂的態度。一個人的生活年輕時確實瀟灑,沒有育兒的煩惱和負擔,可以隨心所欲,但到中老年的時候,有些問題確實是一個人承受不了的。

同時,也需要提供政策和服務支持,很多人主觀上并不想選擇獨居狀態,但是客觀上由于種種原因卻處于這種狀態。要創造更好的婚育環境,一方面要提供更加完善的婚戀服務,另外一方面也要采取實實在在的措施,解決生育養育教育成本過高的問題,通過實施針對性政策,緩解育兒無人照料、照料費用不足等生育和養育壓力。(記者:李金磊)

來源:中國新聞網
來自: Android客戶端
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